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Diabetes and metabolic disorders introduce systemic insults, leading to significant cardiac, renal and liver disease. With an increasing worldwide incidence of obesity and diabetes, cardiac, renal and pulmonary dysfunction secondary to metabolic disorders are of critical interest in modern biomedical research.

Modulating central regulating factors allows PBI to fine-tune each model system for target expression and to drive more complex histopathological presentation.  Disease severity and systemic complications may be exacerbated by manipulating salt intake (high salt feeding), interfering with endothelial function (L-NAME in drinking water) or reducing renal mass.

Type 1 Diabetes

ModelSpeciesTop Tier Data
Streptozotocin (±NPX)Mouse
(Rat –  Under Development)
• Blood Pressure, OGTT
• Creatinine Clearance, GFR
• Urinary Protein, KIM1, NGAL, Albumin
• Serum Creatinine, BUN, Glucose Electrolytes, Triglycerides, HbA1c
• Kidney Histology (fibrosis, macrophage infiltration)
• Cardiac Histology (fibrosis)

Type 2 Diabetes

ModelSpeciesTop Tier Data
ZSF-1 (±NaCl, ±NPX)Rat• Blood Pressure (Direct & Indirect)
• Creatinine Clearance, GFR, Renal Blood Flow
• Urinary Protein, KIM1, NGAL, Osteopontin, Albumin
• Serum Creatinine, BUN, Glucose, Electrolytes, Triglycerides, HbA1c
• Kidney Histology (fibrosis, macrophage infiltration)
• Kidney Fibrotic & Inflammatory mRNA Expression
• Cardiac Histology (Fibrosis, macrophage infiltration)
• Cardiac Fetal and Inflammatory Gene Expression
Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) RatRat
db/db Mouse (±NPX)Mouse
BtBr MouseMouse

Metabolism & Diet

ModelSpeciesTop Tier Data
High Phosphate/Calcium Diet (±NPX)Rat• Blood Pressure (Direct & Indirect)
• Creatinine Clearance, GFR, Renal Blood Flow
• Plasma FGF23, PTH, Vitamin D
• Creatinine Clearance, GFR
• Urinary Protein, KIM1, NGAL, Albumin
• Serum Creatinine, BUN, Electrolytes, Phosphorus, Calcium, Triglycerides
• Kidney Histology (fibrosis, macrophage infiltration)
High Fat DietRat & Mouse
High Carbohydrate DietRat & Mouse

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